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مناقشات اللغويات التطبيقيه
Applied linguistics and teaching approaches
A –i first language education, when a child studies their home language or languages
B – additional language education, often divided into second language education, when
someone studies their society’s majority or official language their home language, and
foreign language education when someone studies the language of another country.
C – clinical linguistics Is the study and treatment of speech and communication
impairments , Whether hereditary, developmental, or acquired (through injury, stroke,
illness, or age)
D-language testing is the assessment and evaluation of language achievements and
proficiency, Both in first and additional languages, and for both General and specific
the teaching of modern foreign
languages was influenced by the dead classical languages, Latin and ancient Greek.
Modern language learning, it was assumed, brought students into contact with great
national civilizations and their literature's
Error Analysis theory
Teachers and materials designers were urged to identify things learners need to do with the language (i.e. conduct a needs analysis)
and simulate these in the classroom
learning would take place without explanation or grading , and without correction of errors,
but simply by exposure to meaningful input
it was believed that neither explicit instruction nor conscious learning had any effect
its view os SLA was derived directly from mainstream linguistics research into
child first language
Acquisition and learning are used in producing language
Acquired competence (subconscious knowledge) allows the learner to produce utterances while learned language (conscious language) serves as a monitor. The monitor allows correction of the ianguage
Krashen's Monitor Model
This has come from theoretical linguistics in the work of Noam Chomsky . His idea is that the human capacity for language , as illustrated by a child's acquisition of the language around them, is not the product of general intelligence or learning ability , but an innate , genetically determined feature of the human species
Krashen's view of classroom language learning and teaching
the author illustrates how and under what conditions the immigrant women in her studyt created, responded to, and sometimes resisted opportunities to speak English. Drawing on her data analysis as well as her reading in social theory, the author argues that current conceptions of the individual in SLA theory need to be reconceptualized, and she draws on the poststructuralist conception of social identity as multiple, a site of struggle, and subject to change to explain the findings from her study. Further, she argues for a conception of investment rather than motivation to capture the complex relationship of language learners to the target language and their sometimes ambivalent desire to speak it. The notion of investment conceives of the language learner, not as a historical and unidimensional, but as having a complex social history and multiple desires. The article includes a discussion of the implications of the study for classroom teaching and current theories of communicative competence
1- The affective domain
7- Extroversion & introversion
8- Language aptitude
Teaching receptive skills
How we read and Listen
Reasons for Reading and Listening
Top-down and Bottom-up
1- Identifying the topic
2- Predicting and guessing
3- Reading and listening for general understanding (SKIMMING) :
4- Reading and listening for specific information (SCANNING) :
5- Reading and listening for detailed information
6- Interpreting text
Problems and Solutions
a- One way of helping students is to pre-teach vocabulary that is in the reading or listening text.
b- Extensive reading and listening: This suggests reading and listening at length, often for pleasure and in a leisurely way. Extensive reading and listening take place when students are in their own.
c- Authenticity: Authentic material is language where no concessions are made to foreign speakers. It is normal, natural language used by native speakers of a language.
2- Topic and genre
3- Comprehension tasks
4- Negative expectation
Teaching Productive Skills
- In order for communication to be successful, we have to structure our discourse in such a way that it will be understood by our listeners or readers.
- Coherent writing makes sense because you can follow the sequence of ideas and points.
- When people with similar cultural and linguistic backgrounds get together, they speak to each other easily because they know the rules of conversation in their language and their shared culture.
- When they write to each other, they obey certain conventions.
- Such rules and conventions are not written down anywhere, nor are they easy to define. But at some cultural level, our schemata help us to communicate with each other successfully.
المناقشه الحاديه عشر
Writers and course designers have to take a number of issues into account when designing their materials. Once they have a clear idea of how their theories and beliefs about learning can be translated into appropriate activities, they will have to think about what topics to include.
- This will be based on perceptions of what students find engaging, what research shows in this area, and on the potential for interesting exploitation of the topics they might select.
- It will also be necessary to consider what kind of culture the material should reflect or encourage, and to ensure some kind of appropriate balance in terms of gender and the representation of different groups in society, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic.
- Writers and course designers also have to decide what language varieties they wish to focus on or have represented, and they need to adopt a position on how authentic the language should be, especially at beginner levels.
- Once these decisions have been taken, coursebooks writers and language program designers can then turn their attention to the central organizing strand of their materials, namely the syllabus.
المناقشه الثانيه عشر
- Lesson planning is the art of combining a number of different elements into a coherent whole so that a lesson has an identity which students can recognize, work within, and react to --- whatever metaphor teachers may use to visualize and create that identity.
- Plans, which help teachers identify aims and anticipate potential problems, are proposals for action rather than scripts to be followed slavishly, whether they are detailed documents or scribbled notes
المناقشه الثالثه عشر
Progress or achievement tests
المناقشه الرابعه عشر
1) Types of Test Items
Short-answer Objective items
2) General Testing Terminology
Test and Quiz
Objective and subjective test items
Speed and power tests
Formative and summative evaluation
Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests
المصدر: منتديات جامعة الملك فيصل
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