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مناقشات علم الدلاله والبراغماتيك


مناقشات علم الدلاله والبراغماتيك

المناقشات المناقشه الاولى semantics is mainly concerned with a speaker’s competence to use the language system pragmatics is a person’s ability to derive

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تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2014
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افتراضي مناقشات علم الدلاله والبراغماتيك

المناقشات




المناقشه الاولى


semantics is mainly concerned with a speaker’s competence to use the language system
pragmatics is a person’s ability to derive meaning from specific kinds of speech situations











المناقشه الثانيه



Anaphora
We usually make a distinction between introducing new referents (a puppy) and referring back to them (the puppy, it).
We saw a funny YouTube video about a boy washing a puppy in a small bath.
The puppy started struggling and shaking and the boy got really wet.
When he let go, it jumped out of the bath and ran away.
In this type of referential relationship, the second referring expression is an example of anaphora (“referring back”).
The first mention is called the antecedent.
So, in our example, a boy, a puppy and a small bath are antecedents andThe puppy, the boy,






المناقشه الثالثه




The term exponential analysis is a semantic approach which assumes that word meaning can be described in terms of distinct components, many of which are binary.
Components are qualities embedded in any word’s meaning, like the ones seen in dictionary definitions.
E.g., Dog refers to a mammal. Also, it refers to domesticated and carnivonat
that incompatibility of tear







المناقشه الرابعه


Field theory as proposed by Trier is essentially concerned with paradigmatic relations. About the same time Porzig [1934] argued for the recognition of the importance of systematic relations, between e.g.bite and teeth, bark and dog, blond and hair. In a slightly different way Firth [1951]. Argued that,’’ you shall know a word by the company it keeps’’. His familiar example was that of as which occurred [in a now defunct variety of English]. In you silly-, Don’t be such an-, and with a limited set of adjectives such as silly, obstinate, stupid, awful and occasionally] egregious. For Firth this keeping company, which he called collocation, was part of the meaning of a word. As we have seen, meaning was also to be found in the context of situation and all the other levels of the as well







المناقشه الخامسه




Synonyms are two or more forms with very closely related meanings, which are often, but not always, interchangeable in sentences. E.g., broad/wide, almost/nearly, cab/taxi, youth/adolescent, purchase/buy








المناقشه السادسه



Date (a point in time) -Date (fleshy fruit)
So they are homonyms.
Date (on a letter)
Date (an appointment)
Date (a social meeting with someone)
So they are polysemy.







المناقشه السابعه



man = [+ male], [+ mature] or woman = [– male], [+ mature] or boy = [+ male], [– mature] or girl = [– male] [– mature] or child = [+/– male] [– mature]. In other words, the word girl can have three basic factors (orsemantic properties): human, young, and female. Another example, being edible is an important factor by which plants may be distinguished from one another (Ottenheimer, 2006, p. 20). To summarize, one word can have basic underlying meanings that are well established depending on the cultural context. It is crucial to understand these underlying meanings in order to fully understand any language and culture.











المناقشه الثامنه






Unitarian Universalism[2][3][4] is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".[5][6] Unitarian Universalists do not SHAREa creed but are unified by their SHARED search for spiritual growth. The roots of Unitarian Universalism (UU) are in liberal Christianity, specifically Unitarianism andUniversalism. Unitarian Universalists state that from these traditions comes a deep regard for intellectual freedom and inclusive love, so that congregations and members seek inspiration and derive insight from all major world religions.[7]
The theology of individual Unitarian Universalists ranges widely, including atheism,agnosticism, pantheism, deism, Judaism, Islam,[8] Christianity, neopaganism,Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and many more.[9]
The Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was formed in 1961, a consolidation of the American Unitarian Association, established in 1825, and the Universalist Church of America,[10] established in 1866
It is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, and serves churches mostly in the United States. A group of thirty Philippine congregations is represented as a sole member within the UUA. The Canadian Unitarian Council(CUC) became an independent body in 2002.[11] The UUA and CUC are, in turn, two of the seventeen members of the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists









المناقشه التاسعه






Converse antonmy is a paired of words like: Buy-sell, Parent-child. This is a special type of antonmy in that the members of a pair do not contitute a positive negative opposition. they show the reversal of a relationship between two entities. Ali is Buying something from Sami means the same as Sami sells something to Ali. There are always two entities involved one presuposes the other. this is the major difference between this type and the previous two.








المناقشه العاشره








Constatives are words that describe a situation.
Performatives are words that incite action.
John promised to repay me tomorrow.” is an constative utterance because it describes a situation






المناقشه الحاديه عشر






the illocutionary act of an utterance:
'Knock the door!
the perlocutionary act of an utterance:
"By the way, I have a CD of Debussy; would you like to borrow it?"









المناقشه الثانيه عشر


direct and directive







المناقشه الثالثه عشر


Quantity maxim: Make your contribution as informative as is required, but not more, or less, than is required
The Quality maxim: Do not say that which you believe to be false or for which you lack
two of the maxims of grice









المناقشه الرابعه عشر


the son because he is lie




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