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مناقشات نظرية الترجمة


مناقشات نظرية الترجمة

مناقشات نظرية الترجمة 1- discuss the concept of “equivalence” in translation. equivalence can be defined as the ability to transfer written or verbal message from one

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مناقشات نظرية الترجمة



1- discuss the concept of “equivalence” in translation.
equivalence can be defined as the ability to transfer written or verbal message from one language to another one.
2- discuss the main characteristics of a good translator.
a good translator is proficient in both languages; the native tongue and the second language. Moreover, they could also be a multilingual speaker. He is fast, reliable and ethical in addition to being prideful of their work.
3- discuss the main characteristics of a ‘theory’ with special reference to translation.
the traits of translation theory revolves primarily around four criteria; empiricism, determinism, parsimony and generality.
4- discuss the elements of translation and their interaction with one another.
elements of translation are six; source and text language, translator, translated text, translation language and target language. The source and target language are complemented through the translator's processing of both texts.
5- discuss the concepts of ‘process & product’ with special reference to translation.
process is going through translating the text; from the source to the target language. On the other hand, product is the end result of translation.
6- discuss the main differences between a communicative approach and a semantic approach to translation.
the striking difference between the two approaches is as follows; the communicative approach fits best for a group of people such as audience. Whereas the semantic approach is used for the individual translation. In other words, it is natural for the individual.
7- discuss three ecological problems in translation.
ecological problems exist in the environment of source and text languages. For example, the word "kangaroo" doesn't have a synonymous term in arabic, also camel words don't have a term in english. Another problem is the cultural background of people in regards to slang, idioms and expressions. Finally, the geographical location of the target language sometimes can hold off the process of translation.
8- discuss the main difference between literal and free methods of translation used in the abbasid age.
literal translation in the abbasid age suffered demerits of lexical and grammatical problems between arabic and latin. For this reason, free translation was preferred to the literal one due to omitting what is unnecessary for the message.
9- an interpreter can act as a translator but a translator can not act as an interpreter. Discuss
the reason for this is because the translator deals with the written message. More than that, they are also attentive to the lexical and grammatical message. On the other hand, the interpreter deals with speech generally, omitting
10- discuss the role of machine translation in arabic/english-english arabic translation nowadays
machine translation cannot replace the human translator. It is only used to help the translator guess the meaning of words. They cannot be relied on for credible translation.
11- discuss three lexical problems in arabic/english- arabic translation.
first problem is collocations. For example, a verb in english can have various meaning in arabic. The word "delivery" is a prime example. The second one is about idioms and expressions. "it's raining cats and dogs" for example does not make sense in arabic unless it is translated semantically. Finally, there is no equivalent message in either english or arabic.
12- discuss three grammatical problems in arabic/english translation
number not all languages have a grammatical category of number and those that do do not necessarily view countability in the same terms arabic , for example, unlike english have a dual form in addition to singular and plural form. Look at this arabic example taken from an unpublished document about arbitration procedures in cairo: عندما يُراد تعيين ثلاثة محكمين، يختار كل طرف محكما واحداً، ويختار المحكمان المعينان على هذا النحو المحكم الثالث و هو الذي يتولى رئاسة هيئة التحكيم. When the appointment of three arbitrators is required, each party selects on arbitrator , the two arbitrator thus appointed select the third arbitrator who then heads the arbitration committee gender is a grammatical distinction according to which a noun or pronoun is classified as either masculine or feminine in some language. English does not have gender for second person pronouns like arabic أنتَ وأنتِ and does not have gender for الناقة والبعير the following english example translated into arabic illustrates the kind of problems gender can pose in translation: Shampo the hair with a mild wella-shampoo and lightly towel dry. يٌغسل الشعر بشامبو من "ويللا" على أن يكون من نوع الشمابو الملطف، ثم يُجفف الشعر بواسطة المنشفة، وذلك تجفيفاً بسيطاً ليُترك الشعر رطباً. The translator uses passive voice to avoid using gender because he does not want to restrict the sale of the shampoo to men or women. The category of person relates to the notion of participants roles. In english we have first person (i, we) second person, you) and third person (he/she/it/they) in arabic the person system has both a gender and number dimension as in "هنَّ/أنتم/أنتنَّ" some language unlike english have some formality/politeness dimension in their person system, in french for example: Vous as opposed to tu
13- discuss the ecological features in the following example and attempt to translate it into english. Explain the translation approach or strategy you used. قالت ميسون بنت بحدل الكلبية زوجة معاوية رضي الله عنه:
لبَيْتٌ تخفِقُ الأرواحُ فيه أحبُّ إليَّ من قصرٍ مُنيفِ ولُبْسُ عباءةٍ وتقَرُّ عيْني أحبُّ إليَّ من لِبْسِ الشُّفوفِ
simple life with who i love is better than lives in a castle .. And wearing thick clothes and cover my body much better than wearing visible clothes which shows what under it
14- what are the advantages and disadvantages of the theory of translation course?
a good translation is “that in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language , by a native of the country to which that language belongs , as it is by those who speak the a good translation is “that in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language , by a native of the country to which that language belongs , as it is by those who speak the language of the original work .”and there aren't disadvantages theory of to a translation course


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