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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Literature 17 th المناقشة1: . The Puritan movement stood for liberty of the people from the shackles of the despotic ruler as

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  #1  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:16 PM
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تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
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Lightbulb ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Literature 17 th

المناقشة1:
. The Puritan movement stood for liberty of the people from the shackles of the despotic ruler as well as the introduction of morality and high ideals in politics. Thus it had two objects – personal righteousness and civil and religious liberty.
It aimed at making men honest and free. Milton and Cromwell were the real champions of liberty and stood for toleration.

المناقشة 2:
Jacobean and Caroline Prose
This period was rich in prose. The great prose writers were Bacon, Burton, Milton, Sir Thomas Browne, Jeremy Taylor and Clarendon. For the first time the great scholars began to write in English rather than Latin. So the Bible became the supreme example of earlier English prose style- simple, plain and natural.
Restoration Prose
The Restoration period was deficient in poetry and drama, but in prose it holds it head much higher. It was during the Restoration Period that English prose was developed as a medium for expressing clearly and precisely average ideas and feelings about miscellaneous matters for which prose is really meant.

المناقشة3:
هنا أكتب رأيكم الشخصي هل انت موافق على و جهة نظر ميلتون بالمرأة بأنها أقل شأناً من الرجل.

المناقشة4
In the form of a serpent, he talks to Eve and compliments her on her beauty and godliness. She is amazed to find an animal that can speak. She asks how he learned to speak, and he tells her that it was by eating from the Tree of Knowledge. He tells Eve that God actually wants her and Adam to eat from the tree, and that his order is merely a test of their courage. She is hesitant at first but then reaches for a fruit from the Tree of Knowledge and eats. She becomes distraught and searches for Adam. Adam has been busy making a wreath of flowers for Eve.
When Eve finds Adam, he drops the wreath and is horrified to find that Eve has eaten from the forbidden tree. Knowing that she has fallen, he decides that he would rather be fallen with her than remain pure and lose her. So he eats from the fruit as well. Adam looks at Eve in a new way, and together they turn to lust. God immediately knows of their disobedience. He tells the angels in Heaven that Adam and Eve must be punished, but with a display of both justice and mercy

المناقشة 5:
The first words of Paradise Lost state that the poem’s main theme will be “Man’s first Disobedience.” Milton narrates the story of Adam and Eve’s disobedience, explains how and why it happens, and places the story within the larger context of Satan’s rebellion and Jesus’ resurrection.



المناقشة 6:
Discuss how Milton divides the universe into four major regions.
Milton divides the universe into four major regions: glorious Heaven, dreadful Hell, confusing Chaos, and a young and vulnerable Earth in between. The opening scenes that take place in Hell give the reader immediate context as to Satan’s plot against God and humankind. The intermediate scenes in Heaven, in which God tells the angels of his plans, provide a philosophical and theological context for the story.
Then, with these established settings of good and evil, light and dark, much of the action occurs in between on Earth. The powers of good and evil work against each other on this new battlefield of Earth. Satan fights God by tempting Adam and Eve, while God shows his love and mercy through the Son’s punishment of Adam and Eve.

المناقشة 7:

One of the themes in TO DAFFODILS by Robert Herrick is that beauty is not going to stay forever. To
what extent do you agree, verify your answer with examples.
Yes agree with him ,Life is short, and the world is beautiful, love is splendid and we must use the short time we live to make the most of it. This is shown in the words “haste”, “run”, “short” and “quick”.


المناقشة 8:

Explain the surface meaning and deep meaning of “ To Daffodils” by Herrick.
Surface meaning:
In the poet ,TO Daffodils ; Robert Herrick begins by saying that we ’, To Daffodils In his poem ‘ grieve to see the beautiful daffodils being wasted away very quickly. The duration of their gloom is so short that it seems even the rising sun still hasn’t reached the noon-time. Thus, in the very beginning the poet has struck a note of mourning at the fast dying of daffodils.
The poet then addresses the daffodils and asks them to stay until the clay ends with the evening prayer. After praying together he says that they will also accompany the daffodils. This is so because like flowers men too have a very transient life and even the youth is also very short-lived

المناقشة 9:
An implicit theme of “Virtue” is faith. Discuss
An implicit theme of "Virtue" is faith. Although what is visible to humankind in the poem is the transience of earthly delight and the decay of nature, the poem ultimately conveys what cannot be seen and must instead be felt: the existence of a quality, the soul, which exists in eternal delight in a dimension other than the one in which our bodies live.


المناقشة 10:
To what extent the fourth quatrain in “Virtue” is different from the first three.
Herbert begins "Virtue" with an apostrophe, or invocation. That is, here, he starts with a direct rhetorical address to a personified thing: as if speaking to the day, the narrator says, "Sweet day" and then characterizes the day as "cool," "calm," and "bright." Thus, for one noun, "day," he provides four adjectives. The rest of the line is made up of the adverbial "so," signifying intensity, repeated three times. Herbert is presenting a fairly generic image, without any action, as no verb appears among these eight words. Nor can a verb be found in the next line, which is a kind of appositive, or a noun phrase placed beside the noun that it describes. "The bridal of the earth and sky," which describes the "day," indicates no action, instead merely illustrating and amplifying the conditions depicted in the first line. That is, the "sweet day" is the bridal — the marriage, conjunction, or union — of the earth and the sky. In sum, Herbert presents a serene yet invigorating day and locates the reader in the celestial and terrestrial realms simultaneously, for the day in its loveliness brings them together. and The last quatrain presents images of an eternal soul and of a conflagration that turns the whole world, except that virtuous soul, to blackened coal, and its last line ends with the word "live".

المناقشة 11:
Why did Ventidius hate Cleopatra?
Ventidius strongly believes that Cleopatra had been responsible for the ruin of Antony. Ventidius says that Cleopatra has put golden chains around Antony and has made him a slave to her love, thus robbing him of his manliness. Ventidius deplores Cleopatra’s demoralizing influence on Antony who seems to have lost all his heroism and valor. Alexas , in reply, says that one of Antony’s excellent qualities is his loyalty to the woman who loves him.


المناقشة 12:
Discuss how Cleopatra is responsible for all Octavia’s
sufferings
Octavia says that Cleopatra is responsible for all her sufferings. But the moment Octavia leaves, Cleopatra’s heart begins to sink at the thought that Octavia has got back her husband and that Cleopatra is going to lose her lover. She now wants to weep over Antony’s desertion of her till she dies . and Cleopatra reveals that she had spurned Octavius’s offer only because she has always been loyal to Antony. Antony asks Cleopatra to order the unlocking of the gate which opens towards Octavius’s camp. He decides to lead an Egyptian force in order to launch an assault upon Octavius’s troops who would be least expecting it.





المناقشة 13:
comment on the character of Antony.
Antony is now in two minds . He does not know what to do. He says that his feeling of pity urges him to take Octavia’s side but that the same feeling of pity urges him even more strongly to stick to Cleopatra . Ventidius says that both pity and justice demand that Antony should take the side of Octavia . and I think character of Antony is weak and sensitive personal


المناقشة 14:
Comment on the end of All For Love.
The end of All For Love it's sad and tragic . and Dryden gave to his play a sub-title which is THE WORLD WELL LOST. The sub- title means that Antony did well to sacrifice his empire for the sake of his love for Cleopatra, and that Cleopatra did well to sacrifice her kingdom and her life for the sake of her love for Antony . ALL FOR LOVE is a historical play. Dryden depended on Shakespeare’s play ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA


رد مع اقتباس
  #2  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:22 PM
الصورة الرمزية のя•Fάĵr
عضو نشيط
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
المشاركات: 45
افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

Translation theory





المناقشة 1:
What is Translation?

Can Translation become a Science? Discuss

-

translation : the replacement of textual material in one language SL by ********************alent textual material in another language TL .

Sure it is a science and make a kind of art or professional.




المناقشة 2:
Lecture: (2) What is a Translator?

Are all communicators translators? Discuss

=

All communicators are translators, because they receive signals in speech and in writing containing messages encoded in a communication system which is not identical with their own.

- All communicators tend to face the same problems as those of translators, because they need to read the text, make sense of a text. They need to deconstruct it and then reconstruct it.

- Therefore, we can say that any model of communication is a model of translation.






المناقشة 3:
Elements of Translation.

Does a Translation Theory exist? Discuss-
Translation theory is the body of knowledge that we have about translating, extending form general principles to guidelines , suggestion and hints.

Elements of Translation.

Does a Translation Theory exist? Discuss

There six elements of translation :

1- The source language

2- The source text

3-The Translator

4-The translated text

5- The language of Translation

6- The target language




المناقشة 4:
\Elements of Translation.

Which element is the most important element in translation? Discuss.

The Translator

 The translator is the most important element in translation, without him translation does not happen.

 He is the initial knower of two languages or more who could have the ability to move between two languages.

 The translator is a bilingual or a multi-lingual individual.

 The translator’s knowledge should include : knowledge of general linguistics, descriptive methodology and methodology of research applicable to SL and TL.

 The translator has knowledge of the SL and TL cultures.






المناقشة 5:
The Process of Translation

What is the relationship between process and product in Translation?=

It is a complex cognitive operation which takes place in the mind of the translator.

2. This operation helps the translator to interpret and extract the meaning of the original text and re-encode this meaning in the target language.

3. It is simply the abstract translating activities that take place in the mind of the translator before the production of the translated text.




المناقشة 6:
Translation and Culture

How Does culture affect translation? Discuss.=

Culture is ‘the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression’.

When there is a cultural focus , there is a translation problem due to the cultural ‘gap’ or ‘distance’ between the SL and TL.

For example in terms like: crickets words, camel words, etc.

Universal terms such as ‘table’ ‘mirror’, ‘breakfast’ don’t cause translation problems.

When dealing with culture in translation you need to be aware of the following:

1. Contextual Factors such as: Purpose of text, Motivation and cultural, technical and linguistic level of readership, Importance of referent in the SL text, Setting (does recognised translation exist?), Recency of word/referent

2. Translation procedures such as : Transference, Cultural ********************alent, Naturalization, Literal translation, Label, Componential analysis, Accepted standard translation, Paraphrasing, etc






المناقشة 7:
Methods of Translation

What is the best method of translation and why?=

There are eight types of translation:

word-for-word translation, literal

translation, faithful translation,

semantic translation, adaptive

translation, free translation,

idiomatic translation, and

communicative translation. and The best method is (Communicative Translation): it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily accepted and comprehensible to the readership.




المناقشة 8:
Short Intro. to A/E Translation
Why did Translation prosper in the time of Caliph Al-Mamun?=
Translation during the Abbasid Age (811-1331).
Enthusiasm for learning and a high standard of living made the people of Abbasid Age very interested in getting to know what other nations like the
32
Greeks, Romans or Persians had achieved in the field of knowledge, art and science. The only way for them to do so was through the process of translation.

In the time of Caliph Al-Mamun, translation prospered and expanded. He established Dar Al-Ĥikmah (The House of Wisdom) for translators.
Translators were very selective. Works on philosophy, medicine, engineering, music and logic were translated from Greek into Arabic; while works on astronomy, art, law, history and music were translated from Persian into Arabic.




المناقشة 9:
Discuss the main differences between Translation
and Interpreting
Translation and interpretation are similar to writing and speech.
Translation has to do with written language whereas interpretation has to do with speech. Speech historically preceded written language.
Interpretation was used before translation as a means of communication between people of different languages.
Translation was and is still the main streamline from which interpretation has recently branched out as an independent discipline.


المناقشة 10:
Discuss the role of Translation Memory Technology in
Arabic/English-English Arabic Translation nowadays.=
TM allows the translator to store translations in a database and ‘recycle’ them in a new translation by automatically retrieving matched segments (usually sentences) for re-use.
The TM database consists of a source text and target text segment pairs which form so-called translation units (TUs).
After dividing a new ST into segments, the system compares each successive ST segment against the ST segments stored in the translation database.
When a new ST segment matches an ST segments in the database the relevant TU is retrieved.


المناقشة 11:
Discuss the issue of collocations in Arabic / English-
Arabic Translation?=
a collocation is a sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. It is the tendency of certain words to co-occur regularly in a given language, for example, the English verb ‘ deliver collocates with a number of nouns, for each of which Arabic uses a different verb. and Non-********************alence at word level means that the target language has no direct ********************alent for a word which occurs in the source text.




المناقشة 12:
Discuss the Translation problems at morphological
level in Arabic and English.
Morphology covers the structure of words, the way in which the form of a word changes to indicate specific contrast in grammatical system:
for instance ,most nouns in English have two forms a singular form and a plural form man/men, child /children/ car/cars.




المناقشة 13:
: : Find the ecological feature and attempt to translate the following
example into English and explain the translation approach..
or strategy you are using..
وخَلاَ الذُبابُ بها فَلَيس بِبارحِ غَرِداً كَفِعلِ الشَّارِبِ المُتَرنِّمِ

--

I think I can translate the text in this way Flies settled and will not go .. happy as does the drunken ecstatic...

This involves terms or expressions and texts relating to flora, fauna, climate, plains, hills; ‘downs’, ‘plateau’. we can illustrate the translation problem caused by its climatic features :-

Therefore, the ‘substitution’ approach could be used to solve a problem as such. Substitution approach is one of a number of concepts and techniques in the general class of ordered metamorphosis.




المناقشة 14:
What are the advantages and disadvantages of The Theory of
Translation Course?-
a good translation is “that in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language , by a native of the country to which that language belongs , as it is by those who speak the language of the original work .”and there aren't disadvantages theory of to a translation course



رد مع اقتباس
  #3  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:22 PM
الصورة الرمزية のя•Fάĵr
عضو نشيط
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
المشاركات: 45
افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

Translation theory





المناقشة 1:
What is Translation?

Can Translation become a Science? Discuss

-

translation : the replacement of textual material in one language SL by ********************alent textual material in another language TL .

Sure it is a science and make a kind of art or professional.




المناقشة 2:
Lecture: (2) What is a Translator?

Are all communicators translators? Discuss

=

All communicators are translators, because they receive signals in speech and in writing containing messages encoded in a communication system which is not identical with their own.

- All communicators tend to face the same problems as those of translators, because they need to read the text, make sense of a text. They need to deconstruct it and then reconstruct it.

- Therefore, we can say that any model of communication is a model of translation.






المناقشة 3:
Elements of Translation.

Does a Translation Theory exist? Discuss-
Translation theory is the body of knowledge that we have about translating, extending form general principles to guidelines , suggestion and hints.

Elements of Translation.

Does a Translation Theory exist? Discuss

There six elements of translation :

1- The source language

2- The source text

3-The Translator

4-The translated text

5- The language of Translation

6- The target language




المناقشة 4:
\Elements of Translation.

Which element is the most important element in translation? Discuss.

The Translator

 The translator is the most important element in translation, without him translation does not happen.

 He is the initial knower of two languages or more who could have the ability to move between two languages.

 The translator is a bilingual or a multi-lingual individual.

 The translator’s knowledge should include : knowledge of general linguistics, descriptive methodology and methodology of research applicable to SL and TL.

 The translator has knowledge of the SL and TL cultures.






المناقشة 5:
The Process of Translation

What is the relationship between process and product in Translation?=

It is a complex cognitive operation which takes place in the mind of the translator.

2. This operation helps the translator to interpret and extract the meaning of the original text and re-encode this meaning in the target language.

3. It is simply the abstract translating activities that take place in the mind of the translator before the production of the translated text.




المناقشة 6:
Translation and Culture

How Does culture affect translation? Discuss.=

Culture is ‘the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression’.

When there is a cultural focus , there is a translation problem due to the cultural ‘gap’ or ‘distance’ between the SL and TL.

For example in terms like: crickets words, camel words, etc.

Universal terms such as ‘table’ ‘mirror’, ‘breakfast’ don’t cause translation problems.

When dealing with culture in translation you need to be aware of the following:

1. Contextual Factors such as: Purpose of text, Motivation and cultural, technical and linguistic level of readership, Importance of referent in the SL text, Setting (does recognised translation exist?), Recency of word/referent

2. Translation procedures such as : Transference, Cultural ********************alent, Naturalization, Literal translation, Label, Componential analysis, Accepted standard translation, Paraphrasing, etc






المناقشة 7:
Methods of Translation

What is the best method of translation and why?=

There are eight types of translation:

word-for-word translation, literal

translation, faithful translation,

semantic translation, adaptive

translation, free translation,

idiomatic translation, and

communicative translation. and The best method is (Communicative Translation): it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily accepted and comprehensible to the readership.




المناقشة 8:
Short Intro. to A/E Translation
Why did Translation prosper in the time of Caliph Al-Mamun?=
Translation during the Abbasid Age (811-1331).
Enthusiasm for learning and a high standard of living made the people of Abbasid Age very interested in getting to know what other nations like the
32
Greeks, Romans or Persians had achieved in the field of knowledge, art and science. The only way for them to do so was through the process of translation.

In the time of Caliph Al-Mamun, translation prospered and expanded. He established Dar Al-Ĥikmah (The House of Wisdom) for translators.
Translators were very selective. Works on philosophy, medicine, engineering, music and logic were translated from Greek into Arabic; while works on astronomy, art, law, history and music were translated from Persian into Arabic.




المناقشة 9:
Discuss the main differences between Translation
and Interpreting
Translation and interpretation are similar to writing and speech.
Translation has to do with written language whereas interpretation has to do with speech. Speech historically preceded written language.
Interpretation was used before translation as a means of communication between people of different languages.
Translation was and is still the main streamline from which interpretation has recently branched out as an independent discipline.


المناقشة 10:
Discuss the role of Translation Memory Technology in
Arabic/English-English Arabic Translation nowadays.=
TM allows the translator to store translations in a database and ‘recycle’ them in a new translation by automatically retrieving matched segments (usually sentences) for re-use.
The TM database consists of a source text and target text segment pairs which form so-called translation units (TUs).
After dividing a new ST into segments, the system compares each successive ST segment against the ST segments stored in the translation database.
When a new ST segment matches an ST segments in the database the relevant TU is retrieved.


المناقشة 11:
Discuss the issue of collocations in Arabic / English-
Arabic Translation?=
a collocation is a sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. It is the tendency of certain words to co-occur regularly in a given language, for example, the English verb ‘ deliver collocates with a number of nouns, for each of which Arabic uses a different verb. and Non-********************alence at word level means that the target language has no direct ********************alent for a word which occurs in the source text.




المناقشة 12:
Discuss the Translation problems at morphological
level in Arabic and English.
Morphology covers the structure of words, the way in which the form of a word changes to indicate specific contrast in grammatical system:
for instance ,most nouns in English have two forms a singular form and a plural form man/men, child /children/ car/cars.




المناقشة 13:
: : Find the ecological feature and attempt to translate the following
example into English and explain the translation approach..
or strategy you are using..
وخَلاَ الذُبابُ بها فَلَيس بِبارحِ غَرِداً كَفِعلِ الشَّارِبِ المُتَرنِّمِ

--

I think I can translate the text in this way Flies settled and will not go .. happy as does the drunken ecstatic...

This involves terms or expressions and texts relating to flora, fauna, climate, plains, hills; ‘downs’, ‘plateau’. we can illustrate the translation problem caused by its climatic features :-

Therefore, the ‘substitution’ approach could be used to solve a problem as such. Substitution approach is one of a number of concepts and techniques in the general class of ordered metamorphosis.




المناقشة 14:
What are the advantages and disadvantages of The Theory of
Translation Course?-
a good translation is “that in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language , by a native of the country to which that language belongs , as it is by those who speak the language of the original work .”and there aren't disadvantages theory of to a translation course



رد مع اقتباس
  #4  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:25 PM
الصورة الرمزية のя•Fάĵr
عضو نشيط
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
المشاركات: 45
افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

English thought and culture
المناقشة 1:
What is meant by “English” Thought & Culture?-
English Thought and Culture: focuses on different movements and factors that have influenced English thought and literature.
Also, it looks at important movements in English thought and literature, and refers to the historical background to English literature, thought and culture.
المناقشة 2:
What is the definition of “Thought”?-
Thought generally refers to any mental or intellectual activity involving an individual's subjective
consciousness. It can refer either to the act of thinking or the resulting ideas or arrangements of ideas.
المناقشة 3:
What is the definition of “Culture”?-
Culture is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any
other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."
المناقشة 4:
What are some of the main factors influencing the English Thought & Culture?-
1. Invasions (Politics & Economy)
2. Roman & Greek teachings and philosophies
3. Religions (Judaism & Christianity)
4. Theories, Movements, & Revolutions
5. Media & Technology
6. Geography and location
7. Contributions of other nations and cultures (like the Islamic and Arabic contributions)
المناقشة 5:
what do you want to learn in this course? -
Foundations and factors influencing the English and Thought & Culture Iwant to learn about English customs and culture in the European countries
المناقشة 6:
Discuss the following: This course highlights the contributions of Arabic and Islamic culture and civilization to the Western thought and culture .-
In Middle Ages was western live in darkness because Ignorance that Imposition Church but Freedom from that go to western to the translation of Islamic book .Then appear the enlightenment age . Islamic scientific was cause in prosperity western .
Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe were numerous, affecting such varied areas as art, architecture, medicine, agriculture, music, language, and technology. From the 11th to 13th centuries, Europe absorbed knowledge from the Islamic civilization. Of particular importance was the rediscovery of the ancient classic texts, most notably the work of the Greek natural philosopher Aristotle, through translations from Arabic.
المناقشة 7:
Discuss the impact of media on people’s thought.-
The media the had huge impact on people's of view and ideas and ways of thinking. it can make a bad thing look good and positive, it can also make something good look bad and people will become hateful towards it . and According to international statistics, media one of the most important influences in the lives of people .
المناقشة 8:
Mention some aspects of the Greek influence on the English thought & culture -
The term ancient Greece to the classical period of Greek history, in 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. Always seen as a culture, authentic and laid the foundation of Western civilization
She gave authenticity to the current renaissance during the Age of Enlightenment in the 16th century and 17 in Western Europe, and the restoration of activity again through many of the classic modern renaissance in the 18th century and 19th in Europe and the Americas .
السؤال:- على البلاك بورد نفس السؤال حلوه نفسه اعادة للمناقشه 8
السؤال على الافتراضي :-
المناقشة 9:
Discuss briefly three main movements or revolutions that offected the English Thought &Culture . --
1- the American Revolution .2- The French Revolution . 3- industrial.
المناقشة 10:
Who was Plato?-
He was a philosopher in Classical Greece. He was also a mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his most-famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. the greek had a massive influence on life today. they were the first to develop democracy
المناقشة 11:
Language affects thought and culture. Discuss this statement
-Language is more than just a means of communication. It influences our culture and even our thought processes. During the first four decades of the 20th century, language was viewed by American linguists and anthropologists as being more important than it actually is in shaping our perception of reality. This was mostly due to Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Whorf who said that language predetermines what we see in the world around us. In other words, language acts like a polarizing lens on a camera in filtering reality--we see the real world only in the categories of our language . and many different aspects of language could in principle influence many different aspects of thought.
المناقشة 12:
In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. What is the main consequence of this invasion?-
the greek had a massive influence on life today. they were the first to develop democracy.The Norman Conquest changed the face of England forever. William ruled as unquestioned conqueror and the Saxons became merely an unpaid workforce for their new lords. The Norman Conquest also changed the history of Europe – adding the wealth of England to the military might of Normandy made the joint-kingdom a European super power . In warfare it was the start of the age of the knight on horseback.
المناقشة 13:
What are the major varieties of English-
The two main groups are Britain and America. For each there are standard forms of English which are used as yardsticks for comparing other varieties of the respective areas.
1-In Britain the standard is called Received Pronunciation. The term stems from Daniel Jones at the beginning of the present century and refers to the pronunciation of English which is accepted - that is, received - in English society. BBC English, Oxford English, Queen’s English (formerly King’s English) are alternative terms which are not favoured by linguists as they are imprecise or simply incorrect.
2-In America there is a standard which is referred to by any of a number of titles, General American and Network American English being the two most common. There is a geographical area where this English is spoken and it is defined negatively as the rest of the United States outside of New England (the north east) and the South. General American is spoken by the majority of Americans, including many in the North-East and South and thus contrasts strongly with Received Pronunciation which is a prestige sociolect spoken by only a few percent of all the British. The southern United States occupy a unique position as the English characteristic of this area is found typically among the African American sections of the community. These are the descendents of the slaves originally imported into the Caribbean area, chiefly by the English from the 16th century onwards. Their English is quite different from that of the rest of the United States and has far more in common with that of the various Anglophone Caribbean islands.
ترجمة السؤال13\
ما هي أصناف الرئيسية في اللغة الإنجليزية؟ترجمة قوقل ^!^-
المجموعات الرئيسية هما بريطانيا وأمريكا. لكل هناك أشكال مستوى اللغة الإنجليزية التي تستخدم كمقاييس لمقارنة أصناف أخرى من المجالات ذات الصلة .
1- في بريطانيا يسمى معيار النطق وردت. ينبع هذا المصطلح من دانيال جونز في بداية القرن الحالي ، ويشير إلى نطق الإنجليزية التي قبلت - وهذا هو، تلقى - في المجتمع الإنجليزي . بي بي سي الإنجليزية، أوكسفورد الإنكليزية ، اللغة الإنجليزية الملكة (سابقا الملك انجليزي) مصطلحات بديلة هي التي لا يفضلها اللغويين لأنها غير دقيقة أو غير صحيحة ببساطة .
2- في أمريكا هناك المعيار الذي يشار إليه من قبل أي عدد من الألقاب، الأمريكية العامة و شبكة أمريكا الانكليزي وهما الأكثر شيوعا. هناك منطقة الجغرافية التي يتحدث الإنجليزية و هذا يتم تعريفه سلبا مثل بقية الولايات المتحدة خارج نيو انغلاند ( شمال شرق ) والجنوب. يتحدث الاميركي العام من قبل غالبية من الأميركيين ، بما في ذلك العديد في الشمال الشرقي والجنوب، و بالتالي يتناقض بشدة مع تلقى النطق وهو
sociolect الهيبة التي يتحدث بها عدد قليل في المئة فقط من جميع البريطانيين. جنوب الولايات المتحدة تحتل مكانة فريدة باعتبارها سمة اللغة الإنجليزية من هذا المجال و التي توجد عادة بين أقسام الأمريكيين من أصل أفريقي في المجتمع . هذه هي أحفاد العبيد المستوردة أصلا في منطقة البحر الكاريبي ، وعلى رأسها من قبل الإنجليز من القرن 16 وما بعده. لغتهم الإنجليزية هي مختلفة تماما عن بقية الولايات المتحدة ولها أكثر بكثير من القواسم المشتركة مع أن من مختلف جزر البحر الكاريبي الناطقة باللغة الإنجليزية....
========
المناقشة 14:
The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors. What are they?-
The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.
ترجمه 14\
والفرق الرئيسي بين اللغة الإنجليزية الحديثة المبكرة والمتأخرة اللغة الإنجليزية الحديثة هي المفردات. في وقت متأخر اللغة الإنجليزية الحديثة لديها العديد من الكلمات، الناشئة عن اثنين من العوامل الرئيسية. ما هي؟
-
والفرق الرئيسي بين اللغة الإنجليزية الحديثة المبكرة والمتأخرة اللغة الإنجليزية الحديثة هي المفردات. في وقت متأخر اللغة الإنجليزية الحديثة لديها الكثير من الكلمات، والتي تنشأ من عاملين رئيسيين: أولا، خلق الثورة الصناعية والتكنولوجيا حاجة لكلمات جديدة؛ ثانيا، والإمبراطورية البريطانية في أوجها غطت ربع سطح الأرض، واعتمدت اللغة الإنجليزية الكلمات الأجنبية من العديد من البلدان.

---------------
الترجمه قوقل طبعا --
رد مع اقتباس
  #5  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:26 PM
الصورة الرمزية のя•Fάĵr
عضو نشيط
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
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افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

Rise of the novel


المناقشة 1:
Explain the impact of England as a great power on novelists in the 18th century.
The 18th century opened new areas of vision. New discoveries appeared, the people of this age knew a lot of information more than the ancient people
Politics had a great impact on the 17th century literature in England .
During this period, England was a great power in the world, even it became the most powerful empire .
This created self-confidence for the English writers, they were influenced by the political situation
1660: was the date of restoring the monarchy by King Charles II. He came from Paris to England.
Many changes happened because of the restoration of Charles .


===
المناقشة 2:
Why were the people in the 18th century more educated and open-minded than the previous 17th century?
The 18th century is usually referred to as the age of enlightenment because it brought light to the human mind. the previous ages were dark and there was negative attitude toward new ideas of any kind. Tomas Paine called the 18the century the age of reason . The reason depends on thinking and using of the human mind .The 18th century opened new areas of vision. New discoveries appeared, the people of this age knew a lot of information more than the ancient people.


المناقشة 3:
- Why were most novelists during the enlightenment age interested more in the external side of human beings at the expense the internal (psychological) side?
=
Some critics described the novelists of this age, they focused on the external description of life. - Their novels were full of details, they examined life in depth. Somehow, they mix real life and fictional life together.
According to Stevenson,
Defoe 1- invented the English novel. 2- He is considered as the father of the English novel. 3- He contributed a lot to the English novel and to the literary traditions of his age. 4- He was a "turning point" in the history of the English novel.
The purposes of novelists were
1- To teach new values.
2- To entertain their readers.
3- To deliver messages to the readers of what they wanted.
4- To help less educated readers understand life better.
5- To write in a simple language ( in prose rather than verse), let simple people understand.
Novels encourage readers to think of their lives. They show the shortcomings in the society and let the readers discover the right solutions for them.
They supply the readers with a lot of information about unfamiliar topics
6- To write about their present life. They moved from supernatural to natural events in their novels. The novelists in this age intended to write novels about normal life in their society.


المناقشة 4:
Show the differences between a historical novel and a book of actual history.
= The Historical novel
- It is a novel that sets its event and characters in such a well-defined historical context. It includes convincing detailed description of manners, buildings ,..etc.
- It gives a sense of historical authenticit..
The historical novels is neither dead nor dying. It is a story which is set among historical events .such historical novels recreate the atmosphere of a past period and include actual characters and events from history.
history of the book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day. The scope of the history of the book, or book history as it is also known, includes the history of ideas, history of religion..


المناقشة 5:
In some novels, flat characters have important roles that can be remembered later. Explain.
Flat character It was called "humorous" in the 17th century.
This kind of character is constructed around a "single idea or quality ".
This character is easily noticed and remembered by the readers because this character is not complicated and very simple.
It is true that human being has more complexity than that shown in flat characters, but it is the "novelist touch" in which this kind of character has a great impact in the novel. A flat character doesn't present different attitudes. A flat character is static to some extent.
-


المناقشة 6:
Which is better, to leave a novel with an end or let it open? and why؟
Better to have the end of the novel, until it is clear to the reader the full vision of all the chapters ..


المناقشة 7:
Daniel Defoe was a journalist. How did that affect his novels?
Defoe was a political journalist before he turned into writing fiction. At his beginning as a writer, Defoe wanted to establish his writing as a means of living. He had troubles in finding a publisher, but he wrote many works which achieved some money for him.

He used a number of pen names, including Eye Witness, T. Taylor, and Andrew Morton, Merchant. His political writings were widely read and made him a lot of enemies. Often he was misunderstood. Therefore, he was trying to hide his real name to be safe from his enemies.

المناقشة 8:
Was Robinson Crusoe a prisoner or a free man on the isolated island? Explain, why?
Crusoe is looking for his individual freedom. He doesn’t want to stick to the traditional thinking of his society. Even though he is alone on the island, but he feels free and happy to be away from the control of others. He can do whatever he wants; he has the right of his freedom.
- Some critics consider Crusoe as a prisoner on the island. Crusoe himself is uncertain about his situation, but he likes to be alone and to be away from the restrictions of his society in England


المناقشة 9:
How does the setting( place and time) affect you in Robinson Crusoe, negatively or positively? Would it be better if there is another setting? Suggest another setting.

=
Ian Watt expresses that setting is very important; he indicates that time and place are essential to define the individuality of any object.
- Defoe is aware of the importance of setting and sees that Robinson Crusoe becomes particular when it is related to specific time and place. His characters and other elements of the novel are given their background by the setting.
Defoe tries to break with “the earlier literary tradition of using timeless stories to mirror the unchanging moral varieties”.
- There is a “lack of interest” in time and its importance in human relationships in the previous kinds of literature. For example, all the actions of a tragedy take only one day; this is not enough to come closer to human life.
Crusoe is interested in showing the time in his narration. He makes his calendar on the wooden cross. He gives dates to most of his actions.
- According to Ian Watt, Defoe presented “the individual life in its larger perspective as a historical process”. The reader can sense the personal identity during the flow of experiences in relation to time and place.


المناقشة 10:
Defoe had great impact on his society. Explain that.
The readers in the 18th century wanted new kind of writing.
- Therefore, some writers began to think of the need of most people and started to look for some topics that were based on real life which was so close to their humanity
- One of these writers was Daniel Defoe. Defoe wrote different types of writing and later wrote his first realistic novel, Robinson Crusoe which was based on real adventures. He is usually considered the first realistic novelist in England.
He can discover and criticize wrong ideas about his society


المناقشة 11:
Would you like to describe Crusoe as unlucky, racist or colonizer, Why?
yes like definitely , racist . because Crusoe is lucky because he is the only survivor. He is practical ; he wants to get things and supplies from the destroyed a ship. . Can see this event as a kind of realistic relation ship between a colonist and a colonized slave because the colonist sees the colonized as a kind of commodity not as human being . crusoe make himself as great hero he looks at himself most of the time as a normal human being .



المناقشة 12:
The father of Robinson wanted him to become a lawyer. Robinson didn't like this idea. He wanted to explore the world. According to you, was it right to follow his own will instead of obeying his father? Why?-
The father of Robinson wanted him to become a lawyer. Robinson didn't like this idea. He wanted to explore the world . According to you , was it right to follow his own will instead of obeying his father, from my opinion, he was right, unless he can be both, that would be better and not so hard to manage .and He wants to reveal the reality of his humanity. He wants to find out the secrets of life. He no more believes in life without adventure. He keeps looking for new ideas. He plans to leave England.
Crusoe is a good example of the English colonist. He is the king on his island; he is in control of everything around him.



المناقشة 13:
On his way to London, the ship was wrecked and he was almost killed. After this accident, he didn't stop travelling and he wanted to go to Africa. What lessons can we learn from that?
.
The lesson that we learn from it a possible determination and perseverance on the target , whatever the difficulties. and Don't let fear stop us from following our dreams . And never give up .


المناقشة 14:
Do you think that Defoe meant this novel to be a moral tale? If so, what was the moral? Explain that?
Defoe tries to break with “the earlier literary tradition of using timeless stories to mirror the unchanging moral varieties”.
- There is a “lack of interest” in time and its importance in human relationships in the previous kinds of literature. For example, all the actions of a tragedy take only one day; this is not enough to come closer to human life .and the some human and realistic features in this novel that make is one of the most popular realistic novels.

رد مع اقتباس
  #6  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:27 PM
الصورة الرمزية のя•Fάĵr
عضو نشيط
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
المشاركات: 45
افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

Essay




المناقشة 1:


Our first lecture consists of the definition of an Essay and the main three parts of it. It also discusses how to develop strong thesis statement. Explain to me how one can write a strong thesis statement. Provide your discussion with strong examples.
The thesis statment is the sentence that tells the main idea of the whole essay it can be compared atopic sentence which gives the main idea of apragraph it usually comes at or the end of the introductory pragraph examples
If you ask average Americans where their language comes from they will probably say England
However , English vocabulary has also been influnced by other countries and groubs of people . Some words are borrowed from other languages sush as typhoon which originally from the chinese words lia fug meaing big wind Skunk the name oF asmall amelly black and
white animal came to English from Native AMERICANS LANGUAGE aFRICAN AMERCINES TOO HAVE BOTH CONTIBUTED NEW WORDS TO ENGLISH AND CHANGED THE MEAINING OF SOME EXISTING WORDS
---------------------------



المناقشة 2:
The 2nd lecture mainly discusses the logical division of ideas in an Essay. It also tackles the thesis statement pitfalls. Give us some examples using the transition signals for logical division of ideas. ALSO, what are the pitfalls of thesis statements? How can we avoid them. Logical division is an appropriate pattern for explaining causes, reasons, types, kinds, qualities, methods, advantages, and disadvantages, as these typical college exam questions ask you to do .
: College questions are as the following
For Example :
of inflationcauses Explain the three Economic
Describe the Agriculture/ Landscape designbasic types of soils and additives needed to prepare each type for planting .
of the U.S. Civil causes Discuss the U.S. HistoryWar .
of main forms he three explain t Business Business organization
of the various classes Describe Health Sciences Drugs used to treat depression..
A thesis is the most important sentence in your essay, so write it with special though and care. Avoid these common problems :
Problem 1: The thesis is too general .
TOO GENERAL
Thesis Statement Second Pitfall .
Problem 2: The thesis makes a simple announcement
Problem 3: The Thesis stats an obvious fact
====================


المناقشة 3:
The number of body paragraphs depends on the number of ... The body paragraphs support ... The function of an introduction in an essay is to introduce the topic and ... Cleanliness is considered a virtue, but just what does it mean ... The first sentence in an introductory paragraph should be a general
The 3rd lecture talks about essay outlining and how to conclude a passage. What’s Essay Outlining? What’s the function of an introduction? What’s the function of a body paragraph? What’s the function of a concluding paragraph? What does topic sentence mean ? What does supporting details mean?
Essay Outlining: Before you begin writing the first draft of your essay, it is best to make an outline. An outline is a general plan of what you are going to write. You can compare making an outline to drawing plans to build a house. Before one begins to build a house, it is best to draw up plans to make sure that a house is built in the way you want. The same is true with writing an essay and making an outline.
The function of an introduction: The length of the introduction can vary. You do not need to include any more than is necessary to accomplish the function of the introduction. There is no rule on what this will consist of, as different issues may require something a little different. For example, you may need to include a definition of some terms in order to clarify the precise focus of the assignment.
The function of a body paragraph: are used to help your a reader follow the logic of your arguments. When you start a new idea, or a point that contrasts the one you were just discussing, or when you raise either a related or separate point, you should start a new paragraph. As well, a paragraph should not be too long or too short.
The function of a concluding paragraph: To provide an alternate viewpoint to those presented in the body of the essay
and to recap the main points in order to help the reader understand the argument
and to restate the topic sentence word for word
A Topic sentence: is normally the first or second sentence, though it can be located anywhere in the paragraph. It regularly introduces the topic or gives the most useful information in the paragraph. It makes a statement (or asks a question) that the rest of the paragraph explains or supports with examples of what the topic sentence has said.
A supporting detail: is a detail that supports a piece of writing. The middle of the assignment and it is a pieces of information that support the main idea

=====================

المناقشة 4:
For many persons, beginning (or providing an introduction to the body of the talk) ... Or you may conclude by making a short statement recommending the action ... At other times, nothing more than a clear indication that the lecture has begun is sufficient. ... They can be informed about how the ideas have been organized.
------------

=========================


المناقشة 5:
In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a ... Make the paragraph the unit of composition: one paragraph to each topic . ..... Rules 3, 4, 5, and 6 cover the most important principles in the punctuation of ordinary ..... of works, he will as a rule do better not to take them up singly in chronological order
The 5th lecture talks about one of the most important aspect in writing process, that is, “chronological order”. Use some transition signals for chronological order in one or two paragraph(s).
During [1] the early twentieth century, Australian society experienced a transformation of the domestic ideal. At this time [1] families were subject to an increasing array of government and 'professional' programs and advice aiming to manage and regulate family life. Some of these programs were designed to counter social changes, others were designed to engineer them; ultimately [2] each heralded a growing expert encroachment into the private sphere.
[1] Indicating a specific time
[2] Indicating a conclusion
Intervention and influence took three forms. Firstly [3] , techniques designed to maximise efficiency were introduced into the home and scientific principles were applied to its design. In addition [4], housework and parenting methods were scrutinised and subject to unprecedented standards. Secondly [3], all aspects of reproduction attracted increasing intervention from government and the medical profession. Thirdly [3], state, professional and philanthropic groups began to usurp the parental role within the family through instruction and policy. Consequently [5], the development of 'modern' social ideals brought regulation, intervention and ever-increasing unrealistic standards.
[3] To indicate sequence and logically divide an idea
[4] Indicating extra information
[5] Indicating a result
List of transition signals


=========================


المناقشة 6:
The 6th class talks about cause and effect essay. Discuss the definition of cause and effect essay and then outline the normal structure of cause and effect essay.
Cause and effect depend on each other. You can’t have
one without the other. A plane crashed. That is the
effect. What are the possible causes? Was it a
mechanical or human error? Was it due to the weather?
Was it a terrorist action? Obviously there are many
.possible causes

:Step one
Select a significant topic, for example, a social
.phenomenon or a social trend
Step two
Decide whether you want to examine the cause or effect
.or both
Step three
Examine each cause and effect thoroughly, using sufficient
.evidence to prove your points
----------------------------



المناقشة 7:
The 7th class tackles the issue of organizing the cause and effect organization. There are two ways of organizations; block organization & chain organization. Discuss them and give examples.
Block organization
You discuss all of the
causes in one block (one, two or three paragraphs, depending on the n
umber of causes). Then you discuss all the effects in another block.

Chain organization
You discuss a first cause and then the effect, a second cause and its effect, a third cause and its effect, and so on.
Block organization
You discuss all of the causes in one block (one, two or three paragraphs, depending on the n umber of causes). Then you discuss all the effects in another block.

Chain organization
You discuss a first cause and then the effect, a second cause and its effect, a third cause and its effect, and so on.



====================

المناقشة 8:
A comparison and contrast essay may discuss only similarities, only ... Each subtopic in Part I must also be discussed in Part II. ... Choose a method of development that works well with your organizing ... Use specific and relevant examples for support. ... Use transitional words or phrases to help the reader understand the
The 8th class introduces the topic of comparison and contrast essay and the organization of it. Discuss the definition of comparison and contrast essay and the ways of organizing it? Support your discussion with examples, using comparison signal words or/and contrast signal words.
Comparing things is something we do every day when we have to make decisions. For example, you might think of similarities or differences when we are buying a new MP3 player or choosing a place to study English.
You may need to evaluate two sides of an issue you have studied in a class or two proposals for research or projects at your workplace. In these cases, you will need to write an essay or report to discuss your ideas about the topic. This is a comparison and contrast essay
Comparison/Contrast Essay Organization
Like other types of essays, a comparison and contrast essay must have a clear introduction and conclusion.
The body of the essay can be organized many ways. We will look at two organizational styles.
Point by point organization
Block organization ..
Example r /and
You can go to a restaurant or request food for the home ..
I prefer potatoes and chicken .,.,.,.

==================


المناقشة 9:
The 9th lecture is basically reviewing types of sentences and discussing the use of parallel structures and fixing sentence problems. Give me a short example for each type of sentences. Also, give me a sentence problem and fix it by yourself.
To make your writing more interesting, you should try to vary your sentences in terms of length and structure. You can make some of your sentences long and others short.
Examples:
I love living in the city. I have a wonderful view of the entire city. I have an apartment. I can see the Golden Gate Bridge. I can see many cargo ships pass under the bridge each day. I like the restaurants in San Francisco. I can find wonderful food from just about every country. I don’t like the traffic in the city.
I love living in the city of San Francisco. I have a wonderful view of the entire city from my apartment window. In addition, I can see the Golden Gate Bridge under which many cargo ships pass each day. I also like San Francisco because I can find wonderful restaurants with food from just about every country; however, I don’t like the traffic in the city.
Example: I like to write, read, and studying.
sentence problem:
this semester I'm studying art,music, taking math course.
fix:
this semester I'm studying art,music ,and math
===========================================


المناقشة 10:
The 10th lecture is discussing the rules of the following punctuations; commas, semicolons, colons, quotation marks. Discuss the function of each. Support your discussion with examples.
=
Comma : use comma after dependent clause if it begins the sentence.
Example:When I first moved to the city, I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets.
Semicolons: It is a break in thought , but not a complete stop more like an elongated pause.
Example: He ate six hotdogs;he also got a stomach ache.
Colons: use to introduce a quotation longer than one sentence.
Example: If you don't think you can handle it, get out of line now.
Quotation marks: Use with direct sentence.
Example:He said,"I'll go to school tomorrow."

================================================


المناقشة 11:
In the 11th class, we discuss how to paralyze English structures. How can this lesson help you improving your essay writing? Give us one example and explanation

Parallelism means using similar structures to express similar ideas.
Parallel structures make sentences clearer and easier to read.
Editing for parallel structure helps you avoid awkward sentences and keeps you from braking your promise to reader.
Example: we wanted to **************** and to swim
--------------------------------------


المناقشة 12:
In the 12th class, we discuss the uses of comma and we summarizes some parallel structure issues. Write a thesis sentence for the following topic. “Topic: Do you think that violence on television should be banned?” Remember parallel construction when you state the reasons.
Yes, we must prevent violence to the television, to reduce the incidence of crimes by teenagers, and dangerous for the kids to hurt themselves, as well as taking into account the patients' condition, and the owners of weak hearts ..

==================================================


المناقشة 13:
We could parallelize structures using the coordinate conjunction, correlative conjunctions, and comparison. Discuss how we can use the previous tools to make a paralleled structures in our essay writing. Provide your explanations with variant explanations.
Conjunctions join two or more words.

Example: I went to the store to buy eggs, milk, and bread.

Conjunctions can join two prepositional phrases.

Example. I went skiing down the hill and past the trees

Conjunctions can connect two clauses or sentences.
When two sentences are joined, a comma MUST be placed before the conjunction.

Ex. I played cards for awhile, but then I played chess
==================================================


المناقشة 14:
In our 14th Class, we review the major sections and points of Essay course. Which parts of this course do you mostly like, and why? And which parts of this course don’t you mostly like, and why?
structure of argumentation (Major premise, minor premise and conclusion), and thesis statement supporting details model. The course takes the form of analysis of exemplary essays, of detailed outlines and of the methods of collecting and using published resurces to report and argue a certain position..i like it all becouse it very interesting . and all the part and points very important to write the essay.

رد مع اقتباس
  #7  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:32 PM
الصورة الرمزية のя•Fάĵr
عضو نشيط
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
المشاركات: 45
افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

الصوتيات والنظام الصوتي

المناقشات



[LEFT]
المناقشة الأولى :
All the sounds we make when we speak are the result of muscles contracting. In addition, the air coming from the lungs is also very important in producing speech sounds. What is the relation between the air coming from the lungs and the places of articulations?
All the sounds we make when we speak are the result of muscles contracting. The muscles in the chest that we use for breathing produce the flow of air that is needed for almost all speech sounds , muscles in the larynx produce many different modifications in the flow of air from the chest to the mouth .
After passing through the larynx the air goes through what we call the vocal tract , which ends at the mouth and nostrils . here the air from the lungs escapes into the atmosphere


المناقشة الثانية :
The first point at which the flow of air can be modified, as it passes from the lungs, is the larynx(you can feel the front of this, the Adam’s apple, protruding slightly at the front of your throat),, in which are located the vocal folds (or focal cords). How can the focal folds play role in determining whether the sound is voiceless or voiced?
The vocal folds may lie open, in which case the airstream passes through them unimpeded. Sounds which are made when the focal folds are open are called voiceless sounds. Thus, /s/ is a voiceless sound..
The focal folds may be brought together so that they are closed, and no air may flow through them from the lungs. When the air comes from the lungs the buildup of air pressure underneath this closure is sufficient to force that closure open. But the air pressure then drops and the muscular pressure causes the folds to close again. The sequence is then repeated very rapidly and the results in what is called vocal folds vibration this vibration is felt when you put your fingers to your larynx and produce a sound like /z/. Sounds which are produced with this vocal folds vibration are said to be voiced sounds whereas sounds produced without such vibration are said to be voiceless.

المناقشة الثالثة :
What is the difference between places of articulations and manner of articulations ?
Place of Articulation: We will refer to the points at which the flow of air can be modified as places of articulation. We have just identified the vocal folds as a place of articulation; since the space between the vocal cords is referred to as the glottis, we will refer to sounds produced at this place of articulation as glottal sounds.
Places of articulation-:
Glottal, Bilabial , Labio-dental , Dental , Alveolar, Palate-alveolar , Palatal, Velar .
Manner of Articulation: For any given sound we will say whether it is voiced or voiceless, and what its place of articulation is. But to distinguish between the full ranges of speech sounds, we will require a third descriptive parameter: manner of articulation. To identify the manner in which a sound is articulated, we will identify three different degrees of constriction (complete closure, close approximation, and open approximation), and thus three different categories of consonant: stops, fricative and approximations.

المناقشة الرابعة :
What are the affricates ?
That friction occurs during the release phase of the closure . Sounds produced with a constriction of complete closure followed by a release phase in which friction occurs are called affricates. These are: / ʤ/ /tʃ/
The affricate in chip , transcribed as /tʃ/ is a voiceless palate - alveolar affricate
The first sound in joy, transcribed as / ʤ/ is voiced palate - alveolar affricate

المناقشة الخامسة :
What is the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds ?
The first stop in pit, we said, is a voiceless bilabial stop. So too is the first stop in spit. But the bilabial stop in pit differs phonetically from the bilabial stop in spit: if you hold the palm of your hand up close to your mouth when uttering pit, you will feel a stronger puff of air on releasing the bilabial stop than you will when you utter spit. That stronger puff of air phenomenon is called aspiration: we say that the bilabial stop in pit is an aspirated voiceless stop, whereas the stop in spit is unaspirated

المناقشة السادسة :
The vowel space is represented along two dimensions. What are they?
The first is the high/ low dimension (also referred to as the close/open dimension)
Another feature of vowels is ROUNDING: in English, front vowels are unrounded, i.e the lips are spread (FLEECE , DRESS , TRAP etc.) while back vowels tend to have rounded lips (GOOSE , THOUGHT etc.) In other languages, front vowels can be rounded and back vowels unrounded.

المناقشة السابعة :
Wells uses three key words for the [ɔ:].what are they ?
Wells uses three key words for the [ɔ:]. These are : thought , force and north.

المناقشة الثامنة :
In the word seeing, the vowel [i:] is followed by the vowel [I], but the resulting sequence is not a diphthong, because the [i:] and the [I] are not in the same syllable. What do we mean by this ?
[i:] The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong).[I] The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel.

المناقشة التاسعة :
In English, we have different accents. Give examples of the type mentioned in the lectures.
We will begin with two particular accents; the first is Received Pronunciation (RP) :in British society and General American (GA): accents such as the New York City accent& Texas . in peep and pip differ in several respects , one of which is vowel length. In peep it is a long vowel and in pip it is a short vowel.

المناقشة العاشرة :
Comment on the following. “Phonology is to do with something more than properties of human speech sounds per se.”
phonology is the study of certain sorts of mental organization. So, phonology is essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language. On this view, phonology is not the study of human speech sounds per se. although phonetics and phonology are inextricably intertwined .and it is important to learn the basics of speech and how to respond tactful and courteous manner..

المناقشة الحادية عشر :
The range of places within a word which a given sound may occur in is called its distribution. Explain ?
Sounds that occur in phonetic environments that are identical are said to be in overlapping distribution. The sounds of [ɪn] from pin and bin are in overlapping distribution because they occur in both words. The same is true for three and through. The sounds of [θr] is in overlapping distribution because they occur in both words as well.

المناقشة الثانية عشر :
A syllable can have three segments in the onset. Explain with examples.
A syllable can have three segments in the onest; Onset consonant, obligatory in some languages, optional or even restricted in others.Nucleussonorant, obligatory in most languages Coda consonant, optional in some languages, highly restricted or prohibited in others.

المناقشة الثالثة عشر :
A phoneme can have more than one allophone. Explain with examples.
phonemes are groups of sound - variants : whenever we actually pronounce a sound we use an allophone one of the variants in the group the choice of which variant we use in any context depends on subconscious rule phonemes.
Phonemes = significant ALLOPHONES = non-significant .

المناقشة الرابعة عشر :
Assimilation is an important phonological process. Explain with examples.
[FONT=Simplified Arabic][SIZE=4]assimilation. When two sound segments occur in sequence some aspect of one segment is taken or copied by the other, the process is known as Assimilation. For example, as a result of this process the vowel /ee/ in the word seen, becomes nasalized as a result of its being followed by the nasal sound /n/ We have another process called elision.

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  #8  
قديم 03-13-2015, 08:32 PM
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تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2014
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افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

الصوتيات والنظام الصوتي

المناقشات



[LEFT]
المناقشة الأولى :
All the sounds we make when we speak are the result of muscles contracting. In addition, the air coming from the lungs is also very important in producing speech sounds. What is the relation between the air coming from the lungs and the places of articulations?
All the sounds we make when we speak are the result of muscles contracting. The muscles in the chest that we use for breathing produce the flow of air that is needed for almost all speech sounds , muscles in the larynx produce many different modifications in the flow of air from the chest to the mouth .
After passing through the larynx the air goes through what we call the vocal tract , which ends at the mouth and nostrils . here the air from the lungs escapes into the atmosphere


المناقشة الثانية :
The first point at which the flow of air can be modified, as it passes from the lungs, is the larynx(you can feel the front of this, the Adam’s apple, protruding slightly at the front of your throat),, in which are located the vocal folds (or focal cords). How can the focal folds play role in determining whether the sound is voiceless or voiced?
The vocal folds may lie open, in which case the airstream passes through them unimpeded. Sounds which are made when the focal folds are open are called voiceless sounds. Thus, /s/ is a voiceless sound..
The focal folds may be brought together so that they are closed, and no air may flow through them from the lungs. When the air comes from the lungs the buildup of air pressure underneath this closure is sufficient to force that closure open. But the air pressure then drops and the muscular pressure causes the folds to close again. The sequence is then repeated very rapidly and the results in what is called vocal folds vibration this vibration is felt when you put your fingers to your larynx and produce a sound like /z/. Sounds which are produced with this vocal folds vibration are said to be voiced sounds whereas sounds produced without such vibration are said to be voiceless.

المناقشة الثالثة :
What is the difference between places of articulations and manner of articulations ?
Place of Articulation: We will refer to the points at which the flow of air can be modified as places of articulation. We have just identified the vocal folds as a place of articulation; since the space between the vocal cords is referred to as the glottis, we will refer to sounds produced at this place of articulation as glottal sounds.
Places of articulation-:
Glottal, Bilabial , Labio-dental , Dental , Alveolar, Palate-alveolar , Palatal, Velar .
Manner of Articulation: For any given sound we will say whether it is voiced or voiceless, and what its place of articulation is. But to distinguish between the full ranges of speech sounds, we will require a third descriptive parameter: manner of articulation. To identify the manner in which a sound is articulated, we will identify three different degrees of constriction (complete closure, close approximation, and open approximation), and thus three different categories of consonant: stops, fricative and approximations.

المناقشة الرابعة :
What are the affricates ?
That friction occurs during the release phase of the closure . Sounds produced with a constriction of complete closure followed by a release phase in which friction occurs are called affricates. These are: / ʤ/ /tʃ/
The affricate in chip , transcribed as /tʃ/ is a voiceless palate - alveolar affricate
The first sound in joy, transcribed as / ʤ/ is voiced palate - alveolar affricate

المناقشة الخامسة :
What is the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds ?
The first stop in pit, we said, is a voiceless bilabial stop. So too is the first stop in spit. But the bilabial stop in pit differs phonetically from the bilabial stop in spit: if you hold the palm of your hand up close to your mouth when uttering pit, you will feel a stronger puff of air on releasing the bilabial stop than you will when you utter spit. That stronger puff of air phenomenon is called aspiration: we say that the bilabial stop in pit is an aspirated voiceless stop, whereas the stop in spit is unaspirated

المناقشة السادسة :
The vowel space is represented along two dimensions. What are they?
The first is the high/ low dimension (also referred to as the close/open dimension)
Another feature of vowels is ROUNDING: in English, front vowels are unrounded, i.e the lips are spread (FLEECE , DRESS , TRAP etc.) while back vowels tend to have rounded lips (GOOSE , THOUGHT etc.) In other languages, front vowels can be rounded and back vowels unrounded.

المناقشة السابعة :
Wells uses three key words for the [ɔ:].what are they ?
Wells uses three key words for the [ɔ:]. These are : thought , force and north.

المناقشة الثامنة :
In the word seeing, the vowel [i:] is followed by the vowel [I], but the resulting sequence is not a diphthong, because the [i:] and the [I] are not in the same syllable. What do we mean by this ?
[i:] The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong).[I] The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel.

المناقشة التاسعة :
In English, we have different accents. Give examples of the type mentioned in the lectures.
We will begin with two particular accents; the first is Received Pronunciation (RP) :in British society and General American (GA): accents such as the New York City accent& Texas . in peep and pip differ in several respects , one of which is vowel length. In peep it is a long vowel and in pip it is a short vowel.

المناقشة العاشرة :
Comment on the following. “Phonology is to do with something more than properties of human speech sounds per se.”
phonology is the study of certain sorts of mental organization. So, phonology is essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language. On this view, phonology is not the study of human speech sounds per se. although phonetics and phonology are inextricably intertwined .and it is important to learn the basics of speech and how to respond tactful and courteous manner..

المناقشة الحادية عشر :
The range of places within a word which a given sound may occur in is called its distribution. Explain ?
Sounds that occur in phonetic environments that are identical are said to be in overlapping distribution. The sounds of [ɪn] from pin and bin are in overlapping distribution because they occur in both words. The same is true for three and through. The sounds of [θr] is in overlapping distribution because they occur in both words as well.

المناقشة الثانية عشر :
A syllable can have three segments in the onset. Explain with examples.
A syllable can have three segments in the onest; Onset consonant, obligatory in some languages, optional or even restricted in others.Nucleussonorant, obligatory in most languages Coda consonant, optional in some languages, highly restricted or prohibited in others.

المناقشة الثالثة عشر :
A phoneme can have more than one allophone. Explain with examples.
phonemes are groups of sound - variants : whenever we actually pronounce a sound we use an allophone one of the variants in the group the choice of which variant we use in any context depends on subconscious rule phonemes.
Phonemes = significant ALLOPHONES = non-significant .

المناقشة الرابعة عشر :
Assimilation is an important phonological process. Explain with examples.
[FONT=Simplified Arabic][SIZE=4]assimilation. When two sound segments occur in sequence some aspect of one segment is taken or copied by the other, the process is known as Assimilation. For example, as a result of this process the vowel /ee/ in the word seen, becomes nasalized as a result of its being followed by the nasal sound /n/ We have another process called elision.

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  #9  
قديم 03-16-2015, 10:15 PM
الصورة الرمزية admin
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تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2014
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افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

جزاكي الله خير


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  #10  
قديم 04-22-2015, 06:45 PM
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تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2014
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افتراضي رد: ||~ المناقشات : لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس لغه إنجليزية ~||

جزاك الله خير بس وين مهارات التحدث :/
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حل الواجب الثاني لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس انجليزي admin Level 5 - اللغة الانجليزية 1 11-11-2014 10:10 PM
أسئلة و أجوبة اسئلة مراجعة لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس-علم اجتماع نجرس المستوى الخامس - علم الاجتماع 6 11-07-2014 05:38 PM
أسئلة و أجوبة اسئلة مراجعة لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس-علم اجتماع نجرس المستوى الخامس - علم الاجتماع 8 09-20-2014 02:46 PM
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أسئلة و أجوبة اسئلة مراجعة لجميع مواد المستوى الخامس-علم اجتماع نجرس المستوى الخامس - علم الاجتماع 3 09-01-2014 12:26 AM


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