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مناقشات نظرية الترجمة
What is Translation?
Can Translation become a Science? Discuss
translation : the replacement of textual material in one language SL by equivalent textual material in another language TL .
Sure it is a science and make a kind of art or professional.
Lecture: (2) What is a Translator?
Are all communicators translators? Discuss
All communicators are translators, because they receive signals in speech and in writing containing messages encoded in a communication system which is not identical with their own.
- All communicators tend to face the same problems as those of translators, because they need to read the text, make sense of a text. They need to deconstruct it and then reconstruct it.
- Therefore, we can say that any model of communication is a model of translation.
Elements of Translation.
Does a Translation Theory exist? Discuss-
Translation theory is the body of knowledge that we have about translating, extending form general principles to guidelines , suggestion and hints.
Elements of Translation.
Does a Translation Theory exist? Discuss
There six elements of translation :
1- The source language
2- The source text
4-The translated text
5- The language of Translation
6- The target language
\Elements of Translation.
Which element is the most important element in translation? Discuss.
q The translator is the most important element in translation, without him translation does not happen.
q He is the initial knower of two languages or more who could have the ability to move between two languages.
q The translator is a bilingual or a multi-lingual individual.
q The translator’s knowledge should include : knowledge of general linguistics, descriptive methodology and methodology of research applicable to SL and TL.
q The translator has knowledge of the SL and TL cultures.
5\The Process of Translation
What is the relationship between process and product in Translation?=
It is a complex cognitive operation which takes place in the mind of the translator.
2. This operation helps the translator to interpret and extract the meaning of the original text and re-encode this meaning in the target language.
3. It is simply the abstract translating activities that take place in the mind of the translator before the production of the translated text.
6\Translation and Culture
How Does culture affect translation? Discuss.=
Culture is ‘the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression’.
When there is a cultural focus , there is a translation problem due to the cultural ‘gap’ or ‘distance’ between the SL and TL.
For example in terms like: crickets words, camel words, etc.
Universal terms such as ‘table’ ‘mirror’, ‘breakfast’ don’t cause translation problems.
When dealing with culture in translation you need to be aware of the following:
1. Contextual Factors such as: Purpose of text, Motivation and cultural, technical and linguistic level of readership, Importance of referent in the SL text, Setting (does recognised translation exist?), Recency of word/referent
2. Translation procedures such as : Transference, Cultural equivalent, Naturalization, Literal translation, Label, Componential analysis, Accepted standard translation, Paraphrasing, etc
7\Methods of Translation
What is the best method of translation and why?=
There are eight types of translation:
word-for-word translation, literal
translation, faithful translation,
semantic translation, adaptive
translation, free translation,
idiomatic translation, and
communicative translation. and The best method is (Communicative Translation): it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily accepted and comprehensible to the readership.
8\Short Intro. to A/E Translation
Why did Translation prosper in the time of Caliph Al-Mamun?=
Translation during the Abbasid Age (811-1331).
Enthusiasm for learning and a high standard of living made the people of Abbasid Age very interested in getting to know what other nations like the
Greeks, Romans or Persians had achieved in the field of knowledge, art and science. The only way for them to do so was through the process of translation.
In the time of Caliph Al-Mamun, translation prospered and expanded. He established Dar Al-Ĥikmah (The House of Wisdom) for translators.
Translators were very selective. Works on philosophy, medicine, engineering, music and logic were translated from Greek into Arabic; while works on astronomy, art, law, history and music were translated from Persian into Arabic.
9\Discuss the main differences between Translation
Translation and interpretation are similar to writing and speech.
Translation has to do with written language whereas interpretation has to do with speech. Speech historically preceded written language.
Interpretation was used before translation as a means of communication between people of different languages.
Translation was and is still the main streamline from which interpretation has recently branched out as an independent discipline.
10\Discuss the role of Translation Memory Technology in
Arabic/English-English Arabic Translation nowadays.=
TM allows the translator to store translations in a database and ‘recycle’ them in a new translation by automatically retrieving matched segments (usually sentences) for re-use.
The TM database consists of a source text and target text segment pairs which form so-called translation units (TUs).
After dividing a new ST into segments, the system compares each successive ST segment against the ST segments stored in the translation database.
When a new ST segment matches an ST segments in the database the relevant TU is retrieved.
Discuss the issue of collocations in Arabic / English-
a collocation is a sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. It is the tendency of certain words to co-occur regularly in a given language, for example, the English verb ‘ deliver collocates with a number of nouns, for each of which Arabic uses a different verb. and Non-equivalence at word level means that the target language has no direct equivalent for a word which occurs in the source text.
12\ Discuss the Translation problems at morphological
level in Arabic and English.
Morphology covers the structure of words, the way in which the form of a word changes to indicate specific contrast in grammatical system:
for instance ,most nouns in English have two forms a singular form and a plural form man/men, child /children/ car/cars.
13\ : : Find the ecological feature and attempt to translate the following
example into English and explain the translation approach..
or strategy you are using..
وخَلاَ الذُبابُ بها فَلَيس بِبارحِ غَرِداً كَفِعلِ الشَّارِبِ المُتَرنِّمِ
I think I can translate the text in this way Flies settled and will not go .. happy as does the drunken ecstatic...
This involves terms or expressions and texts relating to flora, fauna, climate, plains, hills; ‘downs’, ‘plateau’. we can illustrate the translation problem caused by its climatic features :-
Therefore, the ‘substitution’ approach could be used to solve a problem as such. Substitution approach is one of a number of concepts and techniques in the general class of ordered metamorphosis.
14\ What are the advantages and disadvantages of The Theory of
a good translation is “that in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language , by a native of the country to which that language belongs , as it is by those who speak the language of the original work .”and there aren't disadvantages theory of to a translation course.
المصدر: منتديات جامعة الملك فيصل
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