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مناقشات ظهور الرواية


مناقشات ظهور الرواية

مناقشات ظهور الروايه 1-Explain the impact of England as a great power on novelists in the 18th century. The 18th century opened new areas of vision. New discoveries appeared,

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قديم 10-01-2014, 10:29 PM
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تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2014
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مناقشات ظهور الروايه


1-Explain the impact of England as a great power on novelists in the 18th century.
The 18th century opened new areas of vision. New discoveries appeared, the people of this age knew a lot of information more than the ancient people
Politics had a great impact on the 17th century literature in England .
During this period, England was a great power in the world, even it became the most powerful empire .
This created self-confidence for the English writers, they were influenced by the political situation
1660: was the date of restoring the monarchy by King Charles II. He came from Paris to England.
Many changes happened because of the restoration of Charles .


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2-
Why were the people in the 18th century more educated and open-minded than the previous 17th century?
The 18th century is usually referred to as the age of enlightenment because it brought light to the human mind. the previous ages were dark and there was negative attitude toward new ideas of any kind. Tomas Paine called the 18the century the age of reason . The reason depends on thinking and using of the human mind .The 18th century opened new areas of vision. New discoveries appeared, the people of this age knew a lot of information more than the ancient people.
3-
- Why were most novelists during the enlightenment age interested more in the external side of human beings at the expense the internal (psychological) side?
=
Some critics described the novelists of this age, they focused on the external description of life. - Their novels were full of details, they examined life in depth. Somehow, they mix real life and fictional life together.
According to Stevenson,
Defoe 1- invented the English novel. 2- He is considered as the father of the English novel. 3- He contributed a lot to the English novel and to the literary traditions of his age. 4- He was a "turning point" in the history of the English novel.
The purposes of novelists were
1- To teach new values.
2- To entertain their readers.
3- To deliver messages to the readers of what they wanted.
4- To help less educated readers understand life better.
5- To write in a simple language ( in prose rather than verse), let simple people understand.
Novels encourage readers to think of their lives. They show the shortcomings in the society and let the readers discover the right solutions for them.
They supply the readers with a lot of information about unfamiliar topics
6- To write about their present life. They moved from supernatural to natural events in their novels. The novelists in this age intended to write novels about normal life in their society.

4-
Show the differences between a historical novel and a book of actual history.
= The Historical novel
- It is a novel that sets its event and characters in such a well-defined historical context. It includes convincing detailed description of manners, buildings ,..etc.
- It gives a sense of historical authenticit..
The historical novels is neither dead nor dying. It is a story which is set among historical events .such historical novels recreate the atmosphere of a past period and include actual characters and events from history.
history of the book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day. The scope of the history of the book, or book history as it is also known, includes the history of ideas, history of religion..

5- In some novels, flat characters have important roles that can be remembered later. Explain.
Flat character It was called "humorous" in the 17th century.
This kind of character is constructed around a "single idea or quality ".
This character is easily noticed and remembered by the readers because this character is not complicated and very simple.
It is true that human being has more complexity than that shown in flat characters, but it is the "novelist touch" in which this kind of character has a great impact in the novel. A flat character doesn't present different attitudes. A flat character is static to some extent.
-


6-
Which is better, to leave a novel with an end or let it open? and why؟
Better to have the end of the novel, until it is clear to the reader the full vision of all the chapters ..

7-
Daniel Defoe was a journalist. How did that affect his novels?
Defoe was a political journalist before he turned into writing fiction. At his beginning as a writer, Defoe wanted to establish his writing as a means of living. He had troubles in finding a publisher, but he wrote many works which achieved some money for him.

He used a number of pen names, including Eye Witness, T. Taylor, and Andrew Morton, Merchant. His political writings were widely read and made him a lot of enemies. Often he was misunderstood. Therefore, he was trying to hide his real name to be safe from his enemies.

.8-
Was Robinson Crusoe a prisoner or a free man on the isolated island? Explain, why?
Crusoe is looking for his individual freedom. He doesn’t want to stick to the traditional thinking of his society. Even though he is alone on the island, but he feels free and happy to be away from the control of others. He can do whatever he wants; he has the right of his freedom.
- Some critics consider Crusoe as a prisoner on the island. Crusoe himself is uncertain about his situation, but he likes to be alone and to be away from the restrictions of his society in England
9-
How does the setting( place and time) affect you in Robinson Crusoe, negatively or positively? Would it be better if there is another setting? Suggest another setting.

=
Ian Watt expresses that setting is very important; he indicates that time and place are essential to define the individuality of any object.
- Defoe is aware of the importance of setting and sees that Robinson Crusoe becomes particular when it is related to specific time and place. His characters and other elements of the novel are given their background by the setting.
Defoe tries to break with “the earlier literary tradition of using timeless stories to mirror the unchanging moral varieties”.
- There is a “lack of interest” in time and its importance in human relationships in the previous kinds of literature. For example, all the actions of a tragedy take only one day; this is not enough to come closer to human life.
Crusoe is interested in showing the time in his narration. He makes his calendar on the wooden cross. He gives dates to most of his actions.
- According to Ian Watt, Defoe presented “the individual life in its larger perspective as a historical process”. The reader can sense the personal identity during the flow of experiences in relation to time and place.
10-
Defoe had great impact on his society. Explain that.
The readers in the 18th century wanted new kind of writing.
- Therefore, some writers began to think of the need of most people and started to look for some topics that were based on real life which was so close to their humanity
- One of these writers was Daniel Defoe. Defoe wrote different types of writing and later wrote his first realistic novel, Robinson Crusoe which was based on real adventures. He is usually considered the first realistic novelist in England.
He can discover and criticize wrong ideas about his society
11-
Would you like to describe Crusoe as unlucky, racist or colonizer, Why?
yes like definitely , racist . because Crusoe is lucky because he is the only survivor. He is practical ; he wants to get things and supplies from the destroyed a ship. . Can see this event as a kind of realistic relation ship between a colonist and a colonized slave because the colonist sees the colonized as a kind of commodity not as human being . crusoe make himself as great hero he looks at himself most of the time as a normal human being .
12-
The father of Robinson wanted him to become a lawyer. Robinson didn't like this idea. He wanted to explore the world. According to you, was it right to follow his own will instead of obeying his father? Why?-
The father of Robinson wanted him to become a lawyer. Robinson didn't like this idea. He wanted to explore the world . According to you , was it right to follow his own will instead of obeying his father, from my opinion, he was right, unless he can be both, that would be better and not so hard to manage .and He wants to reveal the reality of his humanity. He wants to find out the secrets of life. He no more believes in life without adventure. He keeps looking for new ideas. He plans to leave England.
Crusoe is a good example of the English colonist. He is the king on his island; he is in control of everything around him.



13-
On his way to London, the ship was wrecked and he was almost killed. After this accident, he didn't stop travelling and he wanted to go to Africa. What lessons can we learn from that?
.
The lesson that we learn from it a possible determination and perseverance on the target , whatever the difficulties. and Don't let fear stop us from following our dreams . And never give up .



14- Do you think that Defoe meant this novel to be a moral tale? If so, what was the moral? Explain that?
Defoe tries to break with “the earlier literary tradition of using timeless stories to mirror the unchanging moral varieties”.
- There is a “lack of interest” in time and its importance in human relationships in the previous kinds of literature. For example, all the actions of a tragedy take only one day; this is not enough to come closer to human life .and the some human and realistic features in this novel that make is one of the most popular realistic novels.

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